motor performance laboratory
The Neurological Institute of New York || Columbia University

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Learning fast accurate movements requires intact frontostriatal circuits (2013). B Shabbott, R Ravindran, SchumacherJW, PB Wasserman, KS Marder, P Mazzoni. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:752. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00752

Improvement After Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: Recovery of Normal Motor Control or Task-Specific Compensation? (2012). T Kitago, J Liang, VS Huang, S Hayes, P Simon, L Tenteromano, RM Lazar, RS Marshall, P Mazzoni, L Lennihan, JW Krakauer. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair Jul 23. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 22798152

How is a motor skill learned? Change and invariance at the levels of task success and trajectory control (2012). Shmuelof L, Krakauer JW, Mazzoni P. Journal of Neurophysiology 108(2):578-594. PMID: 22514286

Longitudinal change in gait and motor function in pre-manifest Huntington's Disease (2011). Rao AK, Mazzoni P, Wasserman P, Marder K. PLoS Currents Oct 4;3:RRN1268

Prediction of Motor Recovery Using Initial Impairment and fMRI 48 h Poststroke (2011). Zarahn E, Alon L, Ryan SL, Lazar RM, Vry MS, Weiller C, Marshall RS, Krakauer JW. Cereb. Cortex doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr047 First published online: April 28, 2011

Rethinking motor learning and savings in adaptation paradigms: model-free memory for successful actions combines with internal models (2011). Huang VS, Haith A, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Neuron. 2011 May 26;70(4):787-801.

Learning not to generalize: modular adaptation of visuomotor gain (2010). Pearson TS, Krakauer JW, Mazzoni P. Journal of Neurophysiology. 103: 2938-2952. Read Comment.

Compensatory motor control after stroke: an alternative joint strategy for object-dependent shaping of hand posture (2010). Raghavan P, Santello M, Gordon AM, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology. 103: 3034-3043.

Improvement in aphasia scores after stroke is well predicted by initial severity (2010). Lazar RM, Minzer B, Antoniello D, Festa JR, Krakauer JW, Marshall RS. Stroke. 41:1485–1488. Read Comment.

Parallel explicit and implicit control of reaching (2009). Mazzoni P, Wexler N. PLOS One 4(10): e7557. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007557

Adaptation to visuomotor rotation through interaction between posterior parietal and motor cortical areas (2009). Tanaka H, Sejnowski TJ, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology, 102: 2921-32

Early imaging correlates of subsequent motor recovery after stroke (2009). Marshall RS, Zarahn E, Minzer B, Alon L, Lazar RM, Krakauer JW. Annals of Neurology, 65: 596-602.

Noninvasive cortical stimulation enhances motor skill acquisition over multiple days through an effect on consolidation (2009). Reis J, Schambra HM, Cohen LH, Buch ER, Fritsch B, Zarahn E, Celnik PA, Krakauer JW. PNAS. February; 106(5): 1590-5.

Learning of a sequential motor skill comprises explicit and implicit components that consolidate differently. (2009). Ghilardi MF, Moisello C, Silvestri G, Ghez C, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology. May; 101: 2218-2229.

Explaining savings for visuomotor adaptation: Linear time-invariant state-space models are not sufficient (2008). Zarahn E, Weston GD, Liang J, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neurophysiology. July; 100: 2357-2548.

Ipsilateral motor dysfunction from unilateral stroke: Implications for the functional neuroanatomy of hemiparesis (2008). Noskin O, Krakauer JW, Lazar RM, Festa JR, Handy C, O'Brien KA, Marshall RS. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. April; 79(4): 401-6.

Inter-individual variability in the capacity for motor recovery after ischemic stroke (2008). Prabhakaran, S, Zarahn, E, Riley, C, Speizer, A, Chong JY, Lazar, RM, Marshall, RS, Krakauer, JW. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. Jan-Feb; 22(1): 64-71.

Why don't we move faster? Parkinson's disease, movement vigor, and implicit motivation (2007). Mazzoni P, Hristova A, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neuroscience. July; 27(27):7105-16.
Read Comment.

Sensory prediction errors drive cerebellum-dependent adaptation of reaching (2007). Tseng YW, Diedrichsen J, Krakauer JW, Shadmehr R, Bastian AJ. Journal of Neurophysiology. July; 98(1):54-62. Epub 2007 May 16.

Generalization of Motor Learning Depends on the History of Prior Action (2006). Krakauer JW, Mazzoni P, Ghazizadeh, A., Ravindran, R., Shadmehr, R. PLoS Biology. October; 4(10): e316.

Learning New Movements Depends on the Statistics of Your Prior Actions (2006). Inman, Mason. PLoS Biology. October; 4(10): e354.

An Optimization Principle for Determining Movement Duration (2006). Tanaka H, Krakauer JW, Qian N. Journal of Neurophysiology. June; 95(6): 3875-86.

Impaired Anticipatory Control of Fingertip Forces in Patients with a Pure Motor or Sensorimotor Lacunar Syndrome (2006). Raghavan P, Krakauer JW, Gordon AM. Brain. June; 129(Pt 6): 1415-25.

An Implicit Plan Overrides an Explicit Strategy during Visuomotor Adaptation (2006). Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Journal of Neuroscience. April 5; 26(14): 3642-5.

Hemodynamic Impairment as a Stimulus for Functional Brain Reorganization (2006). Marshall RS, Krakauer JW, Matejovsky T, Zarahn E, Barnes A, Lazar RM, Hirsch J. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Jan 18; 1-7.

Patterns of Impairment in Digit Independence after Subcortical Stroke (2006). Raghavan P, Petra E, Krakauer JW, Gordon AM. Journal of Neurophysiology. January; 95(1): 369-78.

Cross-fixation Transfer of Motion Aftereffects with Expansion Motion (2006). Meng X, Mazzoni P, Qian N. Vision Research. 46:3681-3689.

A New Approach to Spatial Covariance Modeling of Functional Brain Imaging Data: Ordinal Trend Analysis (2005). Habeck C, Krakauer JW, Ghez C, Sackeim HA, Eidelberg D, Stern Y, Moeller JR. Neural Computation. July; 17(7): 1602-45.

Adaptation to Visuomotor Transformations: Consolidation, Interference, and Forgetting (2005). Krakauer JW, Ghez C, Ghilardi MF. Journal of Neuroscience. January 12; 25(2): 473-8.

Hypoperfusion without Stroke Alters Motor Activation in the Opposite Hemisphere (2004). Krakauer JW, Radoeva BA, Zarahn E, Wydra J, Lazar RM, Hirsch J, Marshall RS. Annals of Neurology. December; 56(6): 796-802.

Differential Cortical and Subcortical Activations in Learning Rotations and Gains for Reaching: A PET Study (2004). Krakauer JW, Ghilardi MF, Mentis M, Barnes A, Veytsman M, Eidelberg D, Ghez C. Journal of Neurophysiology. February; 91: 924-933.

Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Associated with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (2004). Oh U, Gupta R, Krakauer JW, Khandji AG, Chin SS, Elkind MSV. Neurology. 62: 994-97.

Evolution of Cortical Activation During Recovery From Corticospinal Tract Infarction (2000). Marshall RS, Perera GM, Lazar RM, Krakauer JW, Constantine RC, DeLaPaz RL. Stroke. March; 31(3): 656-61.

Learning of Visuomotor Transformations for Vectorial Planning of Reaching Trajectories (2000). Krakauer JW, Pine ZM, Ghilardi MF, Ghez C. Journal of Neuroscience. December; 20(23): 8916-24.

Independent Learning of Internal Models for Kinematic and Dynamic Control of Reaching (1999). Krakauer JW, Ghilardi MF, Ghez C. Nature Neuroscience. November; 2(11): 1026-31.

Effect of Reversible Inactivation of Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area on Visual and Memory Saccades (1999). Li CR, Mazzoni P, Andersen RA. Journal of Neurophysiology. 81:1827-1838.

Stimulus Context in Hemineglect (1998). Marshall RS, Lazar RM, Krakauer JW, Sharma R. Brain. October; 121(part 10): 2003-10.

Eye-centered, Head-centered, and Intermediate Coding of Remembered Sound Locations in Area LIP (1996). Stricanne B, Andersen RA, Mazzoni, P. Journal of Neurophysiology. 76(3):2071-2076.

Learning of Scaling Factors and Reference Axes for Reaching Movements (1996). Pine ZM, Krakauer JW, Gordon J, Ghez C. Neuroreport. October 2; 7(14): 2357-61.

Motor Intention Activity in the Macaque's Lateral Intraparietal Area. I. Dissociation of Motor Plan from Sensory Memory (1996). Mazzoni P, Bracewell RM, Barash S, Andersen RA. Journal of Neurophysiology. 76(3):1439-1456.

Motor Intention Activity in the Macaque's Lateral Intraparietal Area. II. Changes of Motor Plan. (1996). Bracewell RM, Mazzoni P, Barash S, Andersen RA. Journal of Neurophysiology. 76(3):1457-1464.

Spatially Tuned Auditory Responses in Area LIP of Macaques Performing Delayed Memory Saccades to Acoustic Targets (1996). Mazzoni P, Bracewell RM, Barash S, Andersen RA. Journal of Neurophysiology. 75(3):1233-1241.

A More Biologically Plausible Learning Rule for Neural Networks (1991). Mazzoni P, Andersen RA, Jordan MI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 88:4433-4437.

A More Biologically Plausible Learning Rule than Backpropagation Applied to a Network Model of Cortical Area 7a. (1991). Mazzoni P, Andersen RA, Jordan MI. Cerebral Cortex. 1:293-307.


Essential tremor with ubiquitinated intranuclear inclusions and cerebellar degeneration (2012). Louis ED, Mazzoni P, Ma KJ, Moskowitz CB, Lawton A, Garber A, Vonsattel JP. Clinical Neuropathology 31(3):119-26.

Hemifacial spasm associated with intraparenchymal brain stem tumor (2011). Leonardos A, Greene PE, Weimer LH, Khandji AG, Mazzoni P. Movement Disorders 26(13):2325-6. doi:10.1002/mds.23877. PMID: 22109850

Painless legs and moving toes: symptom reduction during pregnancy (2012). Diaz NL, Hanspal EK, Mazzoni P. Movement Disorders 27(2):328-9. doi: 10.1002/mds.23973. Epub 2011 Sep 27. PMID: 21953579

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) with myoclonus (2010). Poston KL, McGovern RA, Goldman JS, Caccappolo E, Mazzoni P. Movement Disorders 25: 514-516.

Anhedonia after a Selective Bilateral Lesion of the Globus Pallidus (2006). Miller JM, Vorel SR, Tranguch AJ, Kenny ET, Mazzoni P, van Gorp WG, Kleber HD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(5):786-8.

Multiple Reversible Episodes of Subcortical Ischemia Following Postcoital Middle Cerebral Artery Dissection (2006). Prabhakaran S, Krakauer JW. Archives of Neurology. June; 63(6): 891-3.

Bilateral Top of Carotid Occlusion Presenting as Basilar Thrombosis (2005). Liberato B, Harel NY, Krakauer JW. Cerebrovascular Disease. 19(5): 343-4.

Huntington's Disease (2003). Grove M, Vonsattel JP, Mazzoni P, et al. Science of Aging Knowledge Environment. October 29; (43):dn3.

Intracerebral Aneurysms in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Case Report and Literature Review (2000). Mazzoni P, Chiriboga CA, Millar, WS, Rogers A. Pediatric Neurology. 23: 252-255.

The freezing of time as a presenting symptom of Parkinson's disease (1999). P Mazzoni and B Ford. New England Journal of Medicine. Oct 21;341(17):1317-8.

Anti-Yo-Associated Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration in a with Adenocarcinoma of Unknown Origin (1996). Krakauer JW, Balmaceda C, Gluck JT, Posner JB, Fetell MR, Dalmau J. Neurology. May; 46(5): 1486-7.


Motor control abnormalities in Parkinson's disease (2012). P Mazzoni, BA Shabbott, JC Cortes. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 2(6):a009282. PMID: 22675667

Are we ready for a natural history of motor learning? (2011). L Shmuelof and JW Krakauer. Neuron. Nov; 72(3):469-76

Human sensorimotor learning: adaptation, skill, and beyond (2011). JW Krakauer and P Mazzoni. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Aug; 21(4):636-44

Error correction, sensory prediction, and adaptation in motor control (2010). R Shadmehr, MA Smith, and JW Krakauer. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience. June, Vol. 33:89-108.

Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports (2009). Yarrow K, Brown P, Krakauer JW. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 10: 585-596.

Robotic neurorehabilitation: a computational motor learning perspective (2009). Huang VS, Krakauer JW. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 6(5).

Motor Learning and Consolidation: The Case of Visuomotor Rotation (2009). Krakauer JW. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 629: 405-21.

Consensus: Can transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation enhance motor learning and memory formation? (2008). Reis J, Robertson E, Krakauer JW, Rothwell J, Marshall L, Gerloff C, Wassermann E, Pascual-Leone A, Hummel F, Celnik PA, Classen J, Floel A, Ziemann U, Paulus W, Siebner HR, Born J, Cohen LG. Brain Stimulation, in press.

A Computational Neuroanatomy for Motor Control (2008). Shadmehr R., Krakauer JW. Experimental Brain Research. March; 185(3): 359-381.

Towards a Computational Neuropsychology of Action (2007). Krakauer JW, Shadmehr R. Progress in Brain Research. 165: 383-394

Avoiding Performance and Task Confounds: Multimodal Investigation of Brain Reorganization After Stroke Rehabilitation (2007). Krakauer JW. Experimental Neurology. April; 204(2): 491-5.

Stroke and statistics of the aspirin/clopidogrel secondary prevention trials (2007). Howard G, McClure LA, Krakauer JW, Coffey CS. Current Opinion in Neurology. Feb; 20(1) 71-7.

The complex dynamics of stroke onset and progression (2007). Krakauer JW. Current Opinion in Neurology. Feb; 20(1): 47-50.

Motor Learning: Its Relevance to Stroke Recovery and Neurorehabilitation (2006). Krakauer JW. Current Opinion in Neurology. February; 19(1): 84-90.

Consolidation of Motor Memory (2006) Krakauer JW, Shadmehr R. Trends in Neuroscience. January; 29(1): 58-64.

Arm Function after Stroke: From Physiology to Recovery (2005). Krakauer JW. Seminars in Neurology. December; 25(4): 384-95.

Functional Imaging of Motor Recovery after Stroke: Remaining Challenges (2004). Krakauer JW. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. January; 4(1): 42-6.

Conference Highlights From the Sixth International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders (2000). Mazzoni P. Medscape Neurology, October 2000. Available at:

Movement Disorders: New and Clarified Options for Treatment (2000). Mazzoni P. In "Daily Summaries from the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology." Medscape Neurology, May 2000. Available at:

Annotated Outline of the Neurological Work-up (1998). Mazzoni P, Ford B. Unpublished; part of course materials for Core Clerkship in Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University.

Spatial Perception and Movement Planning in the Posterior Parietal Cortex (1994). Mazzoni P. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Evidence for Area LIP as the Posterior Eye Field (1992). Andersen RA, Brotchie PB, Mazzoni P. Current Opinion In Neurobiology. 2:840-846.


The Persistent Mystery of the Basal Ganglia’s Contribution to Motor Control (2010). Mazzoni P, Bracewell RM. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience & Rehabilitation 2010;10:22-26.

Losing control: Brain vs spinal cord (2010). Kitago T, Krakauer JW. Neurology. Apr 20;74(16):1250-1.

Minds met at neuron junction (2006). Krakauer JW. Times Higher Education.

As we lay dying (1997). Krakauer JW. The New Republic, Nov-17; 217, 20. p.42-5.


Computational Neuroanatomy of Voluntary Motor Control (2009). Shadmehr R., Krakauer JW. In: Gazzaniga, M, ed. The Cognitive Neurosciences. Fourth Edition. The MIT press. 587-97

Functional Imaging of Motor Recovery after Stroke (2008). Krakauer JW. In: Schaller B, ed. State of the Art Imaging of Stroke. Nova Publishers. Chapter XI, pp. 327-345.

Motor Learning and Consolidation: The Case of Visuomotor Rotation (2008). Krakauer JW. In: Sternad D, ed. Progress in Motor Control V: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Springer-Verlag. Chapter 8.

Ischemic Stroke: Mechanisms, Evaluation and Treatment (2007). Liberato B, Krakauer JW. In: Schapira, AHV, ed. Neurology: Basic and Clinical Neurosciences. Elsevier. Chapter 42, pp. 551-586.

Myoclonus (2007). Mazzoni P, Jain S. In: Gilman S, ed. Neurobiology of Disease. San Diego: Elsevier, Section IV, Chapter 30, pp. 305-318.

Chapter 32: The Organization of Movement (2000). Ghez C, Krakauer JW. In:; Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, eds Principles of Neural Science. Fourth Edition.

Chapter 38: Voluntary Movement (2000). Krakauer JW, Ghez C. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, eds. Principles of Neural Science. Fourth Edition.

Spatial Representations and Internal Models of Limb Dynamics in Motor Learning (2000). Ghez C, Krakauer JW, Sainburg R, Ghilardi MF. In: Gazzaniga, M, ed. The Cognitive Neurosciences. Second Edition.

Coordinate Transformations for Gaze Coding in the Posterior Parietal Cortex (1989). Mazzoni P, Andersen RA. In: M. A. Arbib, ed. Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Flexibility of Computational Units in Invertebrate Central Pattern Generators (1989). Selverston AI, Mazzoni P. In: Durbin RM, Miall RC, Mitchison GJ., eds. The Computing Neuron. New York: Addison-Wesley, pp. 205-228.

©2004 Motor Performance Lab, Department of Neurology • The Neurological Institute of New York Columbia University Medical Center
Comments • Updated December 9, 2013